Continued from part 1.
###The Reform Years ####Yiona's Revolution #####Garoun Conflict After the Hueromont Incident, President Luc Duvailer and his Ultra-Nationalists found their powerbase severely weakened, but nonetheless they attempted to maintain their grip on power. Civil conflicts erupted; on worlds with weak central presence, states rallied their local militias or defense forces against the Federal garrisons there, while other provinces attempted to side with the ailing U-Nats. The situation was most problematic on Mannar, while Intaki saw more peaceful protests than anything. Desertions across the military took place, while the nations on Gallente Prime who originally attempted to secede from the Federation found themselves vindicated.
Under the influence of Hueromont Mayor Jen Yiona, many nations on Gallente Prime mobilized their planetside armies to prepare for an invasion of Central Garoun, home to the Federal capital of Caille. A stand-off ensued; the Gallente Prime armies knew that the Federation Navy would not be so daring enough to bombard them orbit, given the fact that this was the Gallente homeworld, but they were equally aware that Duvailer and his Ultra-Nationalists may just be megalomaniacal enough to do so. Other than some border clashes, this invasion never reached fruition.
Protests outside the presidential palace in Caille took place, some incidents brutally repressed by local police. It was clear that Duvailer and the Ultra-Nationalists had to go, but with the Constitution and Charter suspended, there would be few avenues for a peaceful transition of power. Factions within the Federation military aligned with anti-Duvailer politicians began to plan a coup d'état, but the Intaki within the Senate were key in invoking diplomatic restraint and preventing a violent collapse of the Federation.
#####Fall of the Ultra-Nationalists Many were thankful, then, that President Duvailer signed the metaphorical end of his career by retracting the state of martial law over the Federation, hoping this would please the angry masses. Instead, almost the entire Senate passed a vote of no confidence on the President, with representatives previously aligned to the U-Nats renouncing their support. With a near-unanimous vote, President Duvailer was forced to step down.
As a complete surprise, Duvalier called elections to vote the President in directly by universal suffrage, with all Federal citizens eligible for candidacy by default. This had never been done before, as all Presidents were appointed from the Senate by chamber vote. It effectively set up Hueromont mayor Jen Yiona to become the next President, who was seen as a champion of the people against the tyrannical Ultra-Nationalists. Why former President Luc Duvalier decreed this remains a mystery within the history books to this day. Some believe it was simply a result of closed door agreements, while others see Duvalier as trying to redeem himself after falling from grace.
####Yiona's Restoration #####Consolidation Newly-elected President Jen Yiona oversaw the formation of a new government towards the end of FC34 (23155AD), one that was significantly more moderate than the previous administration, and perhaps more open to peace. Unfortunately, this would not be so. The atrocities of the early days of the war were still fresh in the memory of the Federal citizenry; with the Ultra-Nationalists out of power, bitterness was levied against the Caldari instead.
After the initial months of fighting, casualties on both sides were high. On the Caldari side, the orbital bombardment had killed millions without remorse. On the Federal side, the ethnic violence and armed conflict on Caldari Prime running up to the attack on Nouvelle Rouvenor had killed just as many, with the Hueromont Incident adding to these woes further. Though the death toll was slightly higher on the Federation side, the Caldari had suffered a much greater dent in their population overall. As a result, neither side was willing to forgive or forget what had taken place, meaning the war would continue for some time yet, despite moderating calls for diplomacy from both President Yiona and many Intaki Senators.
#####Repopulation of Caldari Prime The Hueromont Government, as it became known, was faced with several issues that required the Federation’s immediate attention. First, the economy in Luminaire was tanking, with an entire world depleted of the majority of its population. There were a few million Gallente residing in the underwater cities on Caldari Prime, as well as a handful of ethnic Caldari who refused to leave their ancestral homes, including tribal groups within the. The Federation did not dare order any relocations, especially with the authoritarianism of the Ultra-Nationalists fresh in everyone’s minds. In addition, order had completely broken down. The governments and nation-states on Caldari Prime had become virtually non-existent, while a relatively small guerilla force left by the Chief Executive Panel contributing to the small-scale anarchy.
A peacekeeping force was sent to Caldari Prime to either eradicate or capture the guerillas, and oversee the reconstruction of the homeworld. The Federation redrew the borders of Caldari Prime, restoring the most prominent historic nations in some areas (primarily on the Tikiona continent), or creating new ones where it was deemed convenient or beneficial. Elections were called in a few regions, though in others, the Federation was forced to appoint new leaders, as there were simply not enough citizens for a vote.
A massive repopulation effort was undertaken by the Federation, offering massive incentives for anyone who would choose to make the somewhat deserted Caldari Prime their new home. Private corporations were contracted en masse in the reconstruction of areas that suffered from orbital bombardment. The proximity of the Gallente homeworld meant that the majority of new inhabitants of Caldari Prime were ethnic Gallente in origin, though there were plenty of Intaki and Mannar that moved to the wartorn world, even a small amount of ethnic Caldari from other areas in the Federation. Within a decade, Caldari Prime had been restored to its pre-war state.
####Yiona's Renewal #####Resumption The second immediate problem facing the Federation was the fact that there was still a war ongoing, the ceasefire having been broken by border clashes. During the political transition within the Federation, the Caldari were able to settle into their new homes within the State and start building an infrastructure to restore their military. They were quicker to recover than the Federation was. Before long, the State was able to secure previously Caldari colonies within Essence and Verge Vendor.
The region of Sinq Laison, meanwhile, was a hodgepodge of Gallente and Caldari states and colonies that the latter had started to resecure, then proceeded one step further by conquering the Gallente territories as well, placing them under harsh military rule as a punishment for the Ultra-Nationalist treatment of the Caldari. Even with the moderate government in power, this was deemed unacceptable, and thus campaigns were launched to liberate captured areas in Essence and Verge Vendor, conceding Sinq Laison to the State for the time being.
#####Intaki and Mannar pressures The influential role the Intaki and Mannar had played within the Federation and all the crises up until this point meant that they were stronger members of the union than ever before, their political and economic muscles metaphorically prominent. The Intaki and Mannar within the Senate had started to apply significant pressure to the Federation to deal with the immediate problems facing the nation, though both were at two extremes. The Intaki believed the young Federation must not be shaken by this crisis so early on in its existence, and that stability should be restored peacefully and through defensive military action.
The Mannar felt the same way as the Intaki, though they believed that the Caldari secession was abhorrent. They saw the Caldari as prideful and arrogant, criticizing them for championing the greater good in their culture yet abandoning the Federation, who the Mannar felt represented the true collective good. The Mannar wanted stability to return, but saw the Caldari as enemies and traitors to the Federation and humanity itself, desiring more extreme methods in dealing with them compared to the Intaki.
#####Hueromont Doctrine In response to the above pressures, the Gallente Senators, who were still in majority within the Federal Senate, were forced to treat the Caldari as rebels and renegades. It was believed that they must be brought back into the Federal fold either peacefully or militarily, lest the Intaki and Mannar interpret the failure to do so as either weakness or incompetence. Should the Federation fail in dealing with the Caldari situation, the Intaki, Mannar and others may be tempted to secede as well, thus throwing the whole union into turmoil. This approach became known as the Hueromont Doctrine.
####Yiona's Reconciliation A third and less immediate issue within the Federation was the nature of the union itself. A popular conspiracy had emerged against the corporate elites that had influence at the highest levels of government, as well as the individual nation-states that wielded significant control. They were seen as irrevocably tied to the Ultra-Nationalists and/or being able to exert control over the union with no democratic mandate. Some even associated them with the Caldari, who were now governed exclusively by megacorporations. More pressing, however, was the matter of the Ultra-Nationalists, and what should be done with them.
#####Tovil Trials With the heavy weight of authoritarianism lifted, voices began to emerge that would have been labelled dissident or traitorous under the previous government. While they still saw the Caldari as selfish and prideful, they nonetheless saw the Ultra-Nationalists as far more criminal than the Caldari could ever be. They vehemently disagreed with the bombardment of Caldari Prime, even going as far as to call it an attempt at genocide, and saw Duvailer and his irk as tyrants that must be punished for their actions in ruling the Federation. President Yiona was in sympathy with these individuals. The Ultra-Nationalists were outlawed and, within the military establishment, senior officers who were associated with the party were stripped off their command. This was not enough to please the masses, however. Duvailer and all his associates, both military and civilian, were arrested, to be put on trial by a special tribunal.
The tribunal was to be held in the partially-reconstructed city of Tovil, mostly as a symbolic gesture. On the tribunal’s staff included the President herself and various other high-ranking Federal politicians. The Ultra-Nationalist leadership included Luc Duvailer, former members of his cabinet, advisors, and ex-officers from the Federation military command at the time. They were charged with gross incompetence, failures of leadership, corruption, violations of Federal Law, and crimes against humanity. Critics derided the trials as nothing but a populist maneuver to please the masses, drawing attention away from the fact that some associates of the Ultra-Nationalists were completely ignored by the authorities.
Despite mild criticism, the trials took place. While historians have debated the validity of evidence for genocide, the majority of the U-Nats were charged with lesser crimes against humanity. Luc Duvailer, however, did not escape these accusations. He was found guilty of all charges levied against him, although execution was ruled out, President Yiona believing that this sentence would make the Federation no better than the Ultra-Nationalists. Instead, Luc Duvailer was exiled to the Intaki Syndicate, and was never heard from again.
#####Elite Purges With the Ultra-Nationalists dealt with, scrutiny passed through the backlog of the Federation’s actions under the previous regime, seeking to make amends. Reconciliation with the Intaki Syndicate was brought up but dismissed quickly, noting that the damage had been done and was beyond repair. In addition, few disagreed with the fact that many of the original Intaki Five Thousand were of a questionable background, even under the moderate government. The Syndicate was showing signs of becoming a haven for illegal activities that would thrive under a wartime environment, something that the Federation wanted nothing to do with.
Various laws that regulated the activities of corporations as well as their executives were passed, in an attempt to curb the influence of wealthy elites within the Federation. Politicians with illegal corporate sponsorships were rooted out and torn apart by the media, and even relatively trivial missteps were the target of a popular frenzy. They were effective at first, but as the years passed, these corporations were able to entrench themselves amongst the various legal loopholes that they eventually discovered and exploited. Individual member-states were also looked at with scrutiny, particularly ones that proved influential within the Federation, for better or for worse.
####Yiona's Reform In order to prevent future divisions, many policymakers and citizens felt that unity and allegiance to the Federation as the sole nation of humanity should be emphasized over all else. Identifying by one’s home country was seen as fragmenting and contributing to the problems that saw the Caldari depart. A standardized system of democracy implemented at the interstellar level would be see as one of the means to this ideal of galactic unity and nationhood, based on the individual citizen, rather than focusing on nations using the Federation as a forum to compete against one another.
#####Three pillars of power This all fell under a series of laws known as the Hueromont Reforms. The social and political shocks of the Caldari secession and the brief but brutal rule of the Ultra-Nationalists rapidly raised many questions as to the nature of the Federation, and how it could be changed to prevent any such calamities from happening again. Many ideas were brought forward in the popular, academic, and political arenas, that manifested together into a sweeping law called the Further Federation Act. The first notable point of this bill was implementing a system of checks and balances to prevent another totalitarian government from wrestling control undemocratically, especially a single individual.
To this end, a Supreme Court was introduced as a judicial branch of the government to protect and uphold the Charter and Constitution. The President became its own executive branch, while the Senate would occupy the legislative branch. All three would have a clear separation of powers. Both the President and Senate would now be fully elected by popular vote every five years.
No branch would be superior in power to the other; the President can veto laws passed by the Senate, the Senate could impeach the President, while the Supreme Court could deem the actions of both to be illegal, but has no active or participating role in the governing or lawmaking of the Federation. Thewas reformed to become the bureaucracy to bind the union together, falling under the executive branch.
#####Creation of districts and opt-out powers In addition, many of the colonies of the Federal nations were not represented in the Senate before the Hueromont Reforms. They began to demand equal standing in the union with threats of declaring independence and going their own way as the Caldari did. To this end, as a part of the Further Federation Act, districts replaced the administrative division of sectors, which were previously used to economically and militarily group systems.
Most districts would take up a single constellation, while particularly populous constellations were split into two districts. Senators would no longer have their constituencies as the individual member countries, but would represent the districts instead. This meant that all citizens within a district would receive equal representation in the Senate. By their very nature, districts granted colonies under the administration of home nations full independence. They would also be granted their own parliaments and courts, giving the nations there the ability to control constellation politics. Unlike before, nations could no longer influence Federation-level politics.
Before the laws were implemented, however, the countries of the four major homeworlds (especially the reformed Caldari Prime states) offered resistance. They were not willing to sacrifice their representation to be put on equal footing with their former colonies. Extremely resentful, the appointed representatives of these nations offered stiff resistance to the elected half of the Senate, who became the champions of the people during this popular reform.
A compromise was reached; the Further Federation Act would create the power of 'opt-out', which allowed a member state to refuse to take part in certain elements of the Federation's laws. The majority of opt-out states would be Luminaire or Intaki in origin. Special ruling could override opt-out power in theory, but this ultimately never took place in Federation history.
One notable consequence of the creation of districts was that it disallowed member states to operate colonies outside of their constellation. The biggest loser was the Intaki Assembly, who previously controlled much of the Placid region. Their influence was reduced massively as a result, but many other signatories also lost territory as well.
#####Implementation In FC41 (23162AD), the Further Federation Act was put into force after a couple of years of open debate and discussion, stalled by the fierce early battles of the Gallente-Caldari War. One major stipulation of the Act was moving the Federal capital from the city of Caille on Gallente Prime, to the culturally neutral Villore solar system, as a matter of political sensitivity towards the other members. The fourth planet of Villore, called Libertopolis, became the new capital planet. It took even more time for the Further Federation Act to even be implemented in many places across the union, especially in the territories that became Sinq Laison, which were either occupied or wartorn due to Caldari marauders.
Eventually, the Federation was finally able to shift the frontlines to Sinq Laison and begin a systematic liberation of the conquered territories there, allowing the political transition. Many of the smaller settlements that the Caldari abandoned were ruthlessly destroyed through a scorched earth doctrine, inflicting heavy civilian casualties. This only fueled the Federation’s resolve, and drew the war out for several more decades to come. However, the Further Federation Act was subsequently implemented wholesale across all Federal territories.
The end of President Jen Yiona's administration and the continuation of war into Sinq Laison marked the end of the Luminate Era, a short but violent period that would remain a landmark age for all New Eden.